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2. Definitions

Throughout the code, we use these definitions.

standardized bird code

Bird codes are case-insensitive, and in free-field situations they may be shorter than the maximum length.

Hence, we defined a stanardized bird code as one that has been uppercased and right-padded with spaces to the maximum length. This value is typically used as a key in dictionaries for looking up bird codes.

normalized English name

A name in the usual order, e.g., “Little Blue Heron”.

inverted English name

When the English name of a kind of bird has multiple words (counting hyphenated groups as single words), the inverted name has the form “generic, specific”, where the generic part is the last word and the specific part is all the other words. For single-word names, there is no difference.

Here are some examples.

Normalized nameInverted name
Little Blue HeronHeron, Little Blue
Black-crowned Night-HeronNight-Heron, Black-crowned
SoraSora