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5.2.  Preparing the standard forms (.std) file

The first input file you must prepare is the standard forms file. This file enumerates all the taxa defined in your preferred standard arrangement. Give this file a name of the form f.std where f is some name suggesting the source of the arrangement. For example, a file containing names from the AOU Check-List, 6th ed., including all supplements through the 40th, might be named aou640.std.

Place each taxon on a separate line in the standard forms file. The taxa appear in the order in which they are presented in a checklist. The highest taxon appears first, followed by the first contained taxon, and so on down to the first species. The remaining species in that genus follow; then come the other genera in the family, and so on.

Some taxa are defined implicitly. In particular, there is no separate line for genera, since species are identified by binomials: genera are declared implicitly by their first use in a binomial.

There are two types of record in the standard forms file:

Records in the standard forms file start with three fixed columns, with the remainder of the record in a variable-length format:

  1. The first two columns are the code for the taxonomic rank. Any one- or two-character code may appear here, but one-letter codes must be left-justified and padded with a space. Here are the codes used for one representation of the AOU Check-List:

    cClass
    -cSubclass
    +oSuperorder
    oOrder
    -oSuborder
    +fSuperfamily
    fFamily
    -fSubfamily
    tTribe
    (blank)Species
  2. The third column defines the status of the bird. This column is normally blank, but can contain a status code: “?” to indicate that the species is of questionable occurrence in this checklist, or “+” for species that are extinct.

The exact structure of the “tail” of the record (that is, the variable-length part that follows the first three columns) depends on whether the record describes a higher taxon or a species.

5.2.1.  Higher-taxon records in the .std file

Place each higher taxon on a separate line, following these steps:

  1. Type the two-letter rank code, as defined in the ranks file (see the section above). If the code has only one letter, enter the letter followed by one space.

  2. In the third column, enter the status code. This is usually one space, but encode it as “?” for dubious taxa or “+” for extinct taxa.

  3. Enter the scientific name of the taxon.

  4. Type one slash (“/”), followed by the English name of the taxon.

Here are some examples of higher-taxon records:

c  Aves/Birds
-c Neornithes/True Birds
+o Neognathae/Typical Birds
o  Gaviiformes/Loons
f  Gaviidae/Loons
-o Pelecani/Boobies, Pelicans, Cormorants and Darters

5.2.2.  Species records in the .std file

For each species record, enter these fields on one line:

  1. Place two spaces in the first two columns.

  2. Enter the one-character status code in the third column. This is normally blank, but may be “?” for dubious or “+” for extinct.

  3. Enter the scientific name. The taxon is generally a binomial, but it may include a subgenus as it customarily represented: in parentheses, between the genus and species names.

  4. Enter one slash (“/”), followed by the English name. You may enter multi-word names either in the conventional order (e.g., “Wood Duck”), or with the generic part first, followed by a comma and the specific part (e.g., “Duck, Wood”).

  5. In most cases, you're done. However, if this species is involved in a collision—that is, if it is one of a group of two or more names that abbreviate to the same code according to the rules—enter another slash (“/”) followed by the disambiguation, that is, the substitute code for this species.

Here are some examples of species lines. The last two show the disambiguation of the collision for code BLAWAR.

    Anas strepera/Gadwall
    Anas penelope/Wigeon, Eurasian
    Haliaeetus pelagicus/Sea-Eagle, Steller's
   +Camptorhynchus labradorius/Labrador Duck
   ?Aerodramus vanikorensis/Gray Swiftlet
    Cygnus (Olor) buccinator/Trumpeter Swan
    Cygnus (Cygnus) olor/Swan, Mute
    Dendroica fusca/Warbler, Blackburnian/BKBWAR
    Dendroica striata/Blackpoll Warbler/BKPWAR