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3.3. Formatting bibliography entries

The way references are formatted in the {References} or {Bibliography} environments must be different, depending on whether the citations use the [Author, Year] format, or whether they are bracketed numbers such as [39].

These paragraph shape changes are achieved by using the generic {list} environment. The diagram on page 76 of Kopka illustrates the relevant lengths \labelwidth, \labelsep, \leftmargin, and \itemindent. For either author-year or numeric citation style, the \labelsep length is set to one pica to separate the reference key from the body of the reference.

Because author-year citations may be lengthy, they are run-in to the reference entry, like this:

For the style shown above, the \leftmargin is set to a comfortable value (2 picas). The \labelwidth is set to zero, and the \itemindent set to minus the \leftmargin value, so the author's name starts flush left, with a hanging indentation on continuation lines.

If the references are cited by number, the entry is shaped like this:

Here, the \labelwidth is set according to the given sample text (e.g., “99”), plus square brackets. The \leftmargin is set to the sum of \labelsep and \labelwidth. The \itemindent is set to zero.