Municipal Landfill Design Calculations

An Entry Level Manual of Practice


This 543 page hardcover design manual consists of 54 mini-chapters, covering a comprehensive range of landfill design topics: anchor trench design, leachate pipe performance, waste settlement, drainage design, slope stability, active gas collection, vegetative plan, and so forth.  The manual provides a skeletal framework of state-of-the-art methodologies used to design a modern sanitary landfill.  Each methodology presented is based on published information relevant to the respective landfill design component.  References are provided at the end of each chapter to allow the users of this manual to complement their understanding and use of the material.  Most of the procedures can be solved manually and are well-suited for implementation using a spreadsheet.  Example problems are provided within each chapter in skeletal format to illustrate the basic fundamentals of a particular component or aspect described therein.  The manual would be suitable as a graduate or undergraduate design text, as well as a professional desk reference.

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ISBN: 978-0-692-00678-8
Library of Congress Control Number:  2009912752

Contents

Chapter 1 Landfill Site Selection. 1

Chapter 2 Landfill Design and Construction. 7

Chapter 3 Engineering Properties of Municipal Solid Waste. 28

Chapter 4 Landfill Air Space. 34

Chapter 5 Earthern Cover Requirements. 42

Chapter 6 Landfill Overburden. 55

Chapter 7 Geomembrane Design Elements. 58

Chapter 8 Minimum Geomembrane Liner Thickness: Part 1. 64

Chapter 9 Minimum Geomembrane Liner Thickness: Part 2. 68

Chapter 10 Geomembrane Puncture Protection. 71

Chapter 11 Unbalanced Forces Acting on Geomembrane Liner. 78

Chapter 12 Geomembrane Self-Weight. 83

Chapter 13 Geomembrane Uplift Force during Construction. 85

Chapter 14 Anchor Trench Design. 87

Chapter 15 Maximum Head on Drainage Layer. 98

Chapter 16 Leachate Pipe Drainage Capacity. 104

Chapter 17 Leachate Pipe Performance. 116

Chapter 18 Leachate Removal Systems. 133

Chapter 19 Geotextile Filtration: Leachate Collection. 143

Chapter 20 Geotextile Drainage: Leachate Collection. 148

Chapter 21 Geonet Lateral Drainage. 153

Chapter 22 Foundation Bearing Capacity. 160

Chapter 23 Landfill Foundation Settlement. 165

Chapter 24 Landfill Waste Settlement. 176

Chapter 25 Vertical Expansions in Unlined Landfills: Part 1. 188

Chapter 26 Vertical Expansions in Unlined Landfills: Part 2. 195

Chapter 27 Veneer Cover Stability: Protective Soil Layer. 205

Chapter 28 Side-slope Liner Stability. 217

Chapter 29 Geosynthetic Clay Liner: Use in Composite Covers. 226

Chapter 30 Leakage Through a Composite Liner. 235

Chapter 31 Final Cover Stability. 238

Chapter 32 Landfill Cover Veneer Stability: Gas Pressure. 249

Chapter 33 Landfill Slope Stability. 258

Chapter 34 Seismic-Induced Displacements in Landfills. 275

Chapter 35 Liquefaction Potential. 287

Chapter 36 Stormwater Peak Discharge. 297

Chapter 37 Drainage Swale Design. 311

Chapter 38 Downchute Drainage Design. 333

Chapter 39 Culvert Design. 340

Chapter 40 Discharge Hydrograph. 348

Chapter 41 Detention Storage and Hydrograph Routing. 352

Chapter 42 Stormwater Sedimentation Basins. 364

Chapter 43 Stormwater Management Demonstration. 368

Chapter 44 Landfill Closure Veneer Soil Loss: Water Erosion. 372

Chapter 45 Landfill Closure Veneer Soil Loss: Wind Erosion. 379

Chapter 46 Design of Active Gas Collection Systems. 385

Chapter 47 Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance. 414

Chapter 48 HELP Model Equivalency Demonstration. 449

Chapter 49 Alternative Final Cover Systems. 455

Chapter 50 Landfill Road Design. 472

Chapter 51 Building on a Landfill: Load Bearing Capacity. 483

Chapter 52 Landfill Closure: Vegetation Plan. 490

Chapter 53 Use of Tire Shreds as Construction Material. 509

Chapter 54 Transfer Station. 516

Chapter 55 Epilogue. 523

Chapter 56 Index. 524

The following is a brief excerpt from one page:

Chapter 23 Geosynthetic Clay Liner: Use in Composite Covers

Problem Statement

The basic difference between a composite geomembrane/geosynthetic clay liner (GM/GCL) for use at the landfill base and for use within a final closure cover is that the overburden normal stress is considerably less and differential settlement is more likely to occur in a final closure cover situation.  Among the critical design considerations for this application is to evaluate the retention of the GCL permeability due to out-of-plane deformation resulting from localized settlement, and to assess the GCL strength design under hydration using slope stability analysis.

Design Objectives

1.      Estimate the GCL coefficient of permeability as a function of confining stress.

2.      Evaluate the level of strain produced in a GCL by localized subsidence and to assess the impact on retention of low permeability.

3.      Estimate the required internal reinforcement of a non-woven, needle-punched GCL composite under hydrated conditions for a specified factor of safety.

Design Equations

Hydraulic Conductivity

Compressive stress is a significant variable that controls the behavior of bentonite clay within a GCL.  Increasing the applied normal stress on a GCL decreases the void ratio (or porosity) within the bentonite clay layer, which lowers its hydraulic conductivity, analogous to compacted soils.  The relationship between hydraulic conductivity and effective stress for several types of GCLs hydrated with tap water was presented Thiel et al. (2001).  The differences in hydraulic conductivity between the various GCLs were minimal, except at lower compressive stresses. Slight differences between internally reinforced and non-internally reinforced GCLs were noted.  GCLs with internal reinforcement, such non-woven, needle-punched GCLs, were observed to have a slightly lower hydraulic conductivity under minimal confinement.  As the bentonite hydrates and swells, the reinforcing needle-punched fibers hold the encasing geotextiles together.  This mechanism provides additional confinement and compressive stress on the bentonite clay.  At high normal stresses, the differences in hydraulic conductivity between the various commercial GCLs are subtle (Thiel et al., 2001).

A preliminary design curve was recommended by Thiel et al. (2001) for a confining stress from 100 to 500 kN/m2 (14.5 to 72.5 lbf/in2).  The following equation was adapted from the graph given in their design manual:

kw = 1.78 x 10-9 {exp(-5.76 x 10-3s) Eq. 1
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