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Describes XHTML 1.1, the current preferred language for building World Wide Web pages.

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Table of Contents

1. What is XHTML?
2. A small, complete example page
3. Rules for the XML notation
4. Differences between XHTML and HTML
4.1. Paired tags
4.2. The empty element syntax
4.3. Case sensitivity
4.4. Quoted attributes with values
4.5. Fragment identifiers
5. Separating content and presentation with CSS
6. Basic data types
6.1. The length datatype
6.2. The ID datatype
6.3. The IDREF and IDREFS datatypes
6.4. URIs and link targets: where hyperlinks point
6.5. The link datatype
6.6. Media type
6.7. MIME types: Defining a resource's format
7. Content model notation
8. Overall structure of an XHTML file
8.1. The root element: html
8.2. The head element: Overall page information
8.3. The base element: Specifying the document's base URI
8.4. The link element: Related documents
8.5. The meta element: Page meta-information
8.6. The style element: Specifying presentation style
8.7. The script element: Including executable code
8.8. The noscript element: What to do when your script can't be run
8.9. The body element
9. The block elements
9.1. The heading elements: h1, h2, h3, …, h6
9.2. The address element: Who wrote this page?
9.3. The p element: Regular text paragraph
9.4. The blockquote element: Block-style quotations
9.5. The div element: A generic block container
9.6. The pre element: Display verbatim text
9.7. The ul element: Unnumbered or “bullet” lists
9.8. The li element: List item
9.9. The ol element: Numbered lists
9.10. The dl element: Definition lists
9.11. The hr element: horizontal ruled line
10. Inline content: Inline.model
10.1. a: Hyperlink
10.2. abbr: Abbreviation
10.3. acronym: Acronym
10.4. cite: Title of a work
10.5. code: Part of a computer program
10.6. del: Deleted material
10.7. dfn: Definition of a term
10.8. em: Emphasis
10.9. img: Include an image
10.10. ins: Inserted material
10.11. kbd: Keyboard input
10.12. q: Inline quotations
10.13. samp: Sample computer output
10.14. span: The generic inline container
10.15. strong: Strong emphasis
10.16. sub: Subscript
10.17. sup: Superscript
10.18. var: Variable name
11. Tables: the table element
11.1. Specifying table column properties
11.2. Sectioning a table with thead, tbody, and tfoot
11.3. Table rows: the tr element
11.4. Table cells: the td and th elements
12. Flow.model: Arbitrary content
13. The object element: Embedded multimedia and applet objects
13.1. The param element: Passing arguments to applications
13.2. How to delay instantiation of an object
14. Forms: The form element
14.1. The input forms control
14.2. The label element: Label a control
14.3. The button forms control
14.4. The select forms control: menus
14.5. The option element: One choice inside a select control
14.6. The optgroup element: A group of choices inside a select control
14.7. The textarea forms control: multiline text input
14.8. The fieldset element: Adding structure to a form
14.9. What makes a control successful?
14.10. Writing your form handler script
14.11. The URL encoding method for forms data
15. Standard attributes
15.1. The xml:lang attribute
15.2. The charset attribute: Declaring a character set
15.3. The common attributes: Common.attrib
15.4. The id attribute: Assigning a unique identifier to an element
15.5. The class attribute: Declaring an element's CSS class
15.6. The title attribute: Titling an element
15.7. The tabindex attribute: Specifying tab traversal order
16. Event attributes
17. Legacy and unrecommended elements
17.1. Deprecated features
17.2. Features that are not recommended

1. What is XHTML?

XHTML stands for eXtended HyperText Markup Language. You can use it to build pages on the World Wide Web. XHTML is a refinement of HTML, the original language of the Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee in the early 1990s.

This document is a quick reference for XHTML 1.1. Not every feature is covered, just the features that most people will need most of the time. For the exact definition of the language, see the XHTML 1.1 Recommendation at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) web site.

If you would like to check your page for validity, the W3C Consortium maintains an online validator for XHTML.