28.1. `math`: Common mathematical operations

This module provides the usual basic transcendental mathematical functions. All trig functions use angles in radians. (For a similar set of functions using the complex number system, see the Python library documentation for the `cmath` module.)

The `math` module has two constant attributes:

 `pi` The constant 3.14159... `e` The base of natural logarithms, 2.71828...

Functions in this module include:

 `acos(x)` Angle (in radians) whose cosine is `x`, that is, arccosine of `x`. `acosh(x)` Inverse hyperbolic cosine of `x` `asin(x)` Arcsine of `x`. `asinh(x)` Inverse hyperbolic sine of `x` `atan(x)` Arctangent of `x`. `atanh(x)` Inverse hyperbolic tangent of `x` `atan2(y,x)` Angle whose slope is `y/x`, even if `x` is zero. `ceil(x)` True ceiling function, defined as the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to `x`. For example, `ceil(3.9)` yields 4.0, while `ceil(-3.9)` yields -3.0. `cos(x)` Cosine of `x`, where `x` is expressed in radians. `cosh(x)` Hyperbolic cosine of `x`. `degrees(x` For `x` in radians, returns that angle in degrees. `erf(x)` Error function. `erfc(x)` Error function complement. `exp(x)` `e` to the `x` power. `fabs(x` Returns the absolute value of `x` as a `float` value. `factorial(n)` Returns the factorial of `n`, which must be a nonnegative integer. `floor(x)` True floor function, defined as the largest integer that is less than or equal to `x`. For example, `floor(3.9)` is 3.0, and `floor(-3.9)` is -4.0. `fmod(x,y)` Returns `(x-int(x/y)*y)`. `frexp(x)` For a float value `x`, returns a tuple `(m, e)` where `m` is the mantissa and `e` is the exponent. For `x=0.0`, it returns `(0.0, 0)`; otherwise, `abs(m)` is a float in the half-open interval [0.5, 1) and `e` is an integer, such that `x == m*2**e`. `gamma(x)` Gamma function. `hypot(x,y)` The square root of (`x`2+`y`2). ```ldexp(x, i)``` Returns ```x * (2**i)```. This is the inverse of `frexp()`. `lgamma(x)` Natural log of `abs(gamma(x))`. ```log(x[, b)``` With one argument, returns the natural log of `x`. With the second argument, returns the log of `x` to the base `b`. `log10(x)` Common log (base 10) of `x`. `modf(x)` Returns a tuple `(f, i)` where `f` is the fractional part of `x`, `i` is the integral part (as a float), and both have the same sign as `x`. `radians(x)` For `x` in degrees, returns that angle in radians. `sin(x)` Sine of `x`. `sinh(x)` Hyperbolic sine of `x`. `sqrt(x)` Square root of `x`. `tan(x)` Tangent of `x`. `tanh(x)` Hyperbolic tangent of `x`.